মুখ্য Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 2-Volume Set

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Welcome to the21st EditionofNelson Textbook of Pediatrics- the reference of choice among pediatricians, pediatric residents, and others involved in the care of young patients. This fully revised edition continues to provide the breadth and depth of knowledge you expect fromNelson, while also keeping you up to date withnew advances in the science and art of pediatric practice. Authoritative and reader-friendly, it delivers the information you need in aconcise, easy-to-use format for everyday reference and study.From rapidly changing diagnostic and treatment protocols to new technologies to the wide range of biologic, psychologic, and social problems faced by children today, this comprehensive 2-volume referencekeeps you on the cutting edge of the very best in pediatric care.
সাল:
2019
সংস্করণ:
21
প্রকাশক:
Elsevier
ভাষা:
english
পৃষ্ঠা:
4264 / 15739
ISBN 10:
032352950X
ISBN 13:
9780323529501
বইয়ের সিরিজ:
Eğitim Tanrısı
ফাইল:
PDF, 182.66 MB

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4 comments
 
ferdaus
good gesture from you
27 August 2019 (20:14) 
asdfghjkl
It doesnt open plz help
04 November 2019 (19:00) 
asdfghjkl
Download is ok but cant open
04 November 2019 (19:01) 
zorin
I'd say wait for now or download the older version.
This 21st version is 15k page pdf, the book is with totally raw.

Still thanks to the uploader
06 June 2020 (21:55) 

আপনি একটি বুক রিভিউ লিখতে পারেন এবং আপনার অভিজ্ঞতা শেয়ার করতে পারেন. অন্যান্য পাঠকরা আপনার পড়া বইগুলির বিষয়ে আপনার মতামত সম্পর্কে সর্বদা আগ্রহী হবে. বইটি আপনার পছন্দ হোক বা না হোক, আপনি যদি নিজের সৎ ও বিস্তারিত চিন্তাভাবনা ব্যক্ত করেন তাহলে অন্যরা তাদের জন্য উপযুক্ত নতুন বইগুলি খুঁজে পাবে.
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女神的语言:西方文明早期象征符号解读

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Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics
21 EDITION

ROBERT M. KLIEGMAN, MD
Professor and Chair Emeritus
Department of Pediatrics
Medical College of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

JOSEPH W. ST GEME III, MD
Professor of Pediatrics and Microbiology and Chair of the Department of
Pediatrics
University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Chair of the Department of Pediatrics and Physician-in-Chief
Leonard and Madlyn Abramson Endowed Chair in Pediatrics
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

NATHAN J. BLUM, MD
William H. Bennett Professor of Pediatrics
University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine
Chief, Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

SAMIR S. SHAH, MD, MSCE
Professor of Pediatrics
University of Cincinnati College of Medicine
Director, Division of Hospital Medicine
Chief Metrics Officer
James M. Ewell Endowed Chair
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
Cincinnati, Ohio

ROBERT C. TASKER, MBBS, MD
Professor of Neurology
Professor of Anesthesia
Harvard Medical School
Senior Associate, Critical Care Medicine
Director, Pediatric NeuroCritical Care Program
Boston Children's Hospital
Boston, Massachusetts

KAREN M. WILSON, MD, MPH
Professor of Pediatrics
Debra and Leon Black Division Chief of General Pediatrics
Vice-Chair for Clinical and Translational Research
Kravis Children's Hospital at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai
New York, New York
Editor Emeritus

RICHARD E. BEHRMAN, MD
Nonprofit Healthcare and Educational
Consultants to Medical Institutions
Santa Barbara, California

Table of Contents
Instructions for online access
Cover image
Title Page
Copyright
Dedication
Contributors
Preface
Videos

Volume 1
Part I The Field of Pediatrics
Chapter 1 Overview of Pediatrics
Vital Statistics About Children's Health Globally
The Changing Pediatric World

The New Morbidities
Chronic Illness and Children With Special Health Care Needs
Systems of Care
Bibliography
Chapter 2 Child Health ; Disparities
Determinants of Health and Health Disparities
Disparities in Child Health and Healthcare:
Approaches to Eradicating Disparities: Interventions
Keywords
Racism as Social Determinant
Explaining Racial Disparities: A Taxonomy of Racism
Opportunities to Address Racism
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 3 Global Child Health
Global Burden and Trends in Child Health
Social Determinants of Child Health
Evidence-Based Interventions and Innovations to Address Child
Health Inequities
Challenges in Global Health

Bibliography
Chapter 4 Quality and Value in Healthcare for Children
The Need for Improvement in Quality and Value
What Is Quality?
Framework for Quality
Developing Guidelines to Establish the Standard for Quality
Improving Quality
Measuring Quality
Analyzing Quality Data
Comparing and Reporting Quality
Implications of the U.S. Healthcare Reform for Quality
Information Technology and Quality Improvement
Expanding Individual Quality Improvement Initiatives to Scale
Bibliography
Chapter 5 Safety in Healthcare for Children
Error vs Harm
Safety Frameworks
Identifying and Analyzing Harm, Errors, and Latent Threats
Safety Culture
Reliability Science and High-Reliability Organizations

Serious Harm Events and Healthcare-Associated Conditions
Safety Opportunities and Gaps
Emerging Areas of Safety Research and Improvement
Bibliography
Chapter 6 Ethics in Pediatric Care
Assent and Parental Permission
Treatment of Critically Ill Children
Neonatal Ethics
Declaring Death and Organ Donation
Religious or Cultural Objections to Treatment
Pediatric Ethics Committees and Ethics Consultation
Newborn Screening
Genetics, Genomics, and Precision Medicine
Adolescent Healthcare
Research
Balancing Maternal and Fetal Interests
Justice and Pediatric Ethics
Emerging Issues
Bibliography
Chapter 7 Pediatric Palliative Care

Care Settings
Communication, Advance Care Planning, and Anticipatory Guidance
Bibliography
Chapter 8 Domestic and International Adoption
Domestic Adoption
Intercountry Adoption
Role of Pediatricians
Bibliography
Chapter 9 Foster and Kinship Care
Epidemiology
Legislation in the United States
Early Childhood Trauma Leads to Poor Health Outcomes
Health Issues
Healthcare for Children and Adolescents in Foster Care
Bibliography
Chapter 10 Medical Evaluation of the Foreign-Born Child
Commonly Encountered Infections
Immunizations
Bibliography

Chapter 11 Cultural Issues in Pediatric Care
What Is Culture?
Culturally Informed Care
Bibliography
Chapter 12 Maximizing Children's Health
Periodicity Schedule and Guidelines
Tasks of Well-Child Care
Infancy and Early Childhood
Middle Childhood and Adolescence
Office Intervention for Behavioral and Mental Health Issues
Evidence
Caring for the Child and Youth in the Context of the Family and
Community
Bibliography
Chapter 13 Injury Control
Scope of the Problem
Principles of Injury Control
Risk Factors for Childhood Injuries
Mechanisms of Injury
Psychosocial Consequences of Injuries

Bibliography
Chapter 14 Impact of Violence on Children
Impacts of Violence
Keywords
Bullying and Cyberbullying
School Violence
Treatment and Prevention of Bullying and School Violence
Bibliography
Resources
Keywords
Screening
Recommendations (see Table 14.1)
Bibliography
Resources
Keywords
Susceptibility of Children in Times of War
Psychological Impact of War
Efforts to Protect Children From the Effects of War
Role of Pediatricians and Allied Health Professionals
Bibliography

Bibliography
Chapter 15 Child Trafficking for Sex and Labor
Clinical Presentation
Approach to the Potentially Trafficked Child
Examination and Diagnostic Testing
Referrals and Resources
Bibliography
Chapter 16 Abused and Neglected Children
Definitions
Incidence and Prevalence
Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
General Principles for Assessing Possible Abuse and Neglect
General Principles for Addressing Child Maltreatment
Outcomes of Child Maltreatment
Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect
Advocacy
Keywords
Definition
Presentation of Sexual Abuse

Role of General Pediatrician in Assessment and Management of
Possible Sexual Abuse
Physical Examination of the Child With Suspected Sexual Abuse
Additional Management
Sexual Abuse Prevention
Bibliography
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 17 Strategies for Health Behavior Change
Unified Theory of Behavior Change
Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change
Common Factors Approach
Motivational Interviewing
Shared Decision-Making
Bibliography

Part II Growth, Development, and Behavior

Chapter 18 Developmental and Behavioral Theories
Biopsychosocial Model and Ecobiodevelopmental Framework:
Models of Development
Bibliography
Chapter 19 Positive Parenting and Support
The Importance of Parenting
The Role of the Family
Parenting Styles
Child Temperament
Child Behavioral Problems
Defining Positive Parenting
Parenting as an Intervention
The Role of the Pediatrician
Bibliography
Chapter 20 Assessment of Fetal Growth and Development
Somatic Development
Neurologic Development
Behavioral Development
Psychologic Changes in Parents
Threats to Fetal Development

Bibliography
Chapter 21 The Newborn
Parental Role in Mother–Infant Attachment
The Infant's Role in Mother–Infant Attachment
Implications for the Pediatrician
Bibliography
Chapter 22 The First Year
Age 0-2 Months
Age 2-6 Months
Age 6-12 Months
Bibliography
Chapter 23 The Second Year
Age 12-18 Months
Age 18-24 Months
Bibliography
Chapter 24 The Preschool Years
Structural Development of the Brain
Physical Development
Language, Cognition, and Play

Bibliography
Chapter 25 Middle Childhood
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Social, Emotional, and Moral Development
Bibliography
Chapter 26 Adolescence
Chapter 27 Assessment of Growth
Techniques to Measure Growth
Growth Curves
Other Growth Considerations
Bibliography
Chapter 28 Developmental and Behavioral Surveillance and Screening
Developmental and Behavioral Surveillance
Developmental and Behavioral Screening
Beyond Surveillance and Screening
Bibliography
Chapter 29 Childcare

Provision, Regulation, and Use of Childcare in America
Childcare's Role in Child Health and Development
Role of Pediatric Providers in Childcare
Bibliography
Chapter 30 Loss, Separation, and Bereavement
Separation and Loss
Divorce
Move/Family Relocation
Separation Because of Hospitalization
Military Families
Parental/Sibling Death
Grief and Bereavement
Developmental Perspective
Role of the Pediatrician in Grief
Treatment
Spiritual Issues
Bibliography
Chapter 31 Sleep Medicine
Basics of Sleep and Chronobiology
Developmental Changes in Sleep

Common Sleep Disorders
Health Supervision
Evaluation of Pediatric Sleep Problems
Bibliography

Part III Behavioral and Psychiatric Disorders
Chapter 32 Psychosocial Assessment and Interviewing
Aims of Assessment
Presenting Problems
General Principles of the Psychosocial Interview
Indications for Referral
Psychiatric Diagnostic Evaluation
Special Considerations in the Diagnostic Evaluation of Infants and
Young Children
Bibliography
Chapter 33 Psychopharmacology
Stimulants and Other ADHD Medications
Antidepressants
Antipsychotics
Mood Stabilizers
Medication Use in Physical Illness

Bibliography
Chapter 34 Psychotherapy and Psychiatric Hospitalization
Psychotherapy
Psychiatric Hospitalization
Bibliography
Chapter 35 Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
Epidemiology
Risk Factors
Assessment
Management
Bibliography
Chapter 36 Rumination and Pica
Epidemiology
Etiology and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Epidemiology
Etiology and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment

Bibliography
Chapter 37 Motor Disorders and Habits
Description
Clinical Course
Epidemiology
Differential Diagnosis
Comorbidities
Etiology
Sequelae
Screening
Assessment
Treatment
Description
Clinical Course
Epidemiology
Comorbidity
Differential Diagnosis
Etiology
Treatment
Habits

Bibliography
Chapter 38 Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety Associated With Medical Conditions
Safety and Efficacy Concerns About SSRIs
Bibliography
Chapter 39 Mood Disorders
Description
Epidemiology
Clinical Course
Differential Diagnosis
Comorbidity
Sequelae
Etiology and Risk Factors
Prevention
Screening/Case Finding
Early Intervention
Treatment
Level of Care
Bibliography
Description

Epidemiology
Clinical Course
Differential Diagnosis
Comorbidity
Sequelae
Etiology and Risk Factors
Prevention
Case Finding
Treatment
Level of Care
Bibliography
Chapter 40 Suicide and Attempted Suicide
Epidemiology
Risk Factors
Assessment and Intervention
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 41 Eating Disorders
Definitions
Epidemiology

Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Differential Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Complications
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 42 Disruptive, Impulse-Control, and Conduct Disorders
Description
Epidemiology
Clinical Course
Differential Diagnosis
Comorbidity
Sequelae
Etiology and Risk Factors
Prevention
Screening/Case Finding
Early Intervention

Treatment
Level of Care
Bibliography
Chapter 43 Tantrums and Breath-Holding Spells
Bibliography
Chapter 44 Lying, Stealing, and Truancy
Lying
Stealing
Truancy
Bibliography
Chapter 45 Aggression
Bibliography
Chapter 46 Self-Injurious Behavior
Bibliography
Chapter 47 Childhood Psychoses
Description
Epidemiology
Clinical Course

Differential Diagnosis
Comorbidity
Sequelae
Etiology and Risk Factors
Neuroanatomic Abnormalities
Prevention
Screening/Case Finding
Assessment
Treatment
Bibliography
Bibliography
Diagnosis and Treatment
Bibliography
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography

Part IV Learning and Developmental Disorders
Chapter 48 Neurodevelopmental and Executive Function and Dysfunction
Terminology and Epidemiology

Etiology and Pathogenesis
Core Neurodevelopmental Functions
Clinical Manifestations
Assessment and Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 49 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 50 Dyslexia
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis

Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Management
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 51 Math and Writing Disabilities
Keywords
Math Learning Disability Defined
Epidemiology
Causes of Math Learning Disability
Treatment and Interventions
Bibliography
Keywords
Epidemiology
Skill Deficits Associated With Impaired Writing
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 52 Language Development and Communication Disorders
Normal Language Development
Language and Communication Disorders

Motor Speech Disorders
Hearing Impairment
Hydrocephalus
Rare Causes of Language Impairment
Noncauses of Language Delay
Treatment
Prognosis
Comorbid Disorders
Keywords
Epidemiology
Genetics
Etiology
Comorbidities
Developmental Progression
Treatment
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 53 Developmental Delay and Intellectual Disability
Definition
Etiology

Epidemiology
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnostic Evaluation
Differential Diagnosis
Diagnostic Psychologic Testing
Complications
Prevention
Treatment
Supportive Care and Management
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 54 Autism Spectrum Disorder
Definition
Diagnostic Criteria and Symptoms
Epidemiology
Etiology
Differential Diagnosis
Comorbid Conditions
Screening

Assessment
Treatment and Management
Outcome
Bibliography

Part V Nutrition
Chapter 55 Nutritional Requirements
Dietary Reference Intakes
Energy
Fat
Protein
Carbohydrates
Fiber
Micronutrients
Water
Measuring Nutritional Adequacy
Bibliography
Chapter 56 Feeding Healthy Infants, Children, and Adolescents
Feeding During the First Year of Life
Cow's Milk Protein–Based Formulas

Soy Formulas
Protein Hydrolysate Formulas
Amino Acid Formulas
Milk and Other Fluids in Infants and Toddlers
Complementary Feeding
Feeding Toddlers and Preschool-Age Children
Feeding School-Age Children and Adolescents
Nutrition Issues of Importance Across Pediatric Ages
Bibliography
Chapter 57 Nutrition, Food Security, and Health
Malnutrition as the Intersection of Food Insecurity and Health
Insecurity
Food Security
Undernutrition
Severe Acute Malnutrition
Bibliography
Chapter 58 Refeeding Syndrome
Bibliography
Chapter 59 Malnutrition
Clinical Manifestations

Etiology and Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 60 Overweight and Obesity
Epidemiology
Body Mass Index
Etiology
Comorbidities
Identification
Evaluation
Intervention
Prevention
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Management
Etiology: Studies and Hypotheses
Differential Diagnosis
Bibliography

Bibliography
Chapter 61 Vitamin A Deficiencies and Excess
Overview of Vitamin A
Metabolism of Vitamin A
Functions of Vitamin A and Mechanisms of Action
Vitamin A Deficiency
Hypervitaminosis A
Bibliography
Chapter 62 Vitamin B Complex Deficiencies and Excess
Keywords
Thiamine Deficiency
Thiamine Toxicity
Bibliography
Keywords
Riboflavin Deficiency
Riboflavin Toxicity
Bibliography
Keywords
Niacin Deficiency
Niacin Toxicity

Bibliography
Keywords
Vitamin B6 Deficiency
Vitamin B6 Toxicity
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Folate Deficiency
Folate Toxicity
Bibliography
Keywords
Vitamin B12 Deficiency
Bibliography
Chapter 63 Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Deficiency and Excess
Dietary Needs and Sources of Vitamin C
Vitamin C Deficiency
Vitamin C Toxicity
Bibliography

Chapter 64 Vitamin D Deficiency (Rickets) and Excess
Rickets
Vitamin D Disorders
Calcium Deficiency
Phosphorus Deficiency
Rickets of Prematurity
Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis
Hypervitaminosis D
Bibliography
Chapter 65 Vitamin E Deficiency
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 66 Vitamin K Deficiency
Pathogenesis

Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 67 Micronutrient Mineral Deficiencies
Bibliography

Part VI Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders
Chapter 68 Electrolyte and Acid-Base Disorders
Keywords
Total Body Water
Fluid Compartments
Electrolyte Composition
Osmolality
Point-of-Care Testing
Bibliography
Keywords
Regulation of Osmolality
Regulation of Volume

Bibliography
Keywords
Sodium Metabolism
Hypernatremia
Hyponatremia
Bibliography
Keywords
Potassium Metabolism
Hyperkalemia
Hypokalemia
Bibliography
Keywords
Magnesium Metabolism
Hypomagnesemia
Hypermagnesemia
Bibliography
Keywords
Phosphorus Metabolism
Hypophosphatemia
Hyperphosphatemia

Bibliography
Keywords
Acid-Base Physiology
Normal Acid-Base Balance
Clinical Assessment of Acid-Base Disorders
Metabolic Acidosis
Metabolic Alkalosis
Respiratory Acidosis
Respiratory Alkalosis
Bibliography
Chapter 69 Maintenance and Replacement Therapy
Maintenance Therapy
Maintenance Water
Intravenous Solutions
Glucose
Selection of Maintenance Fluids
Variations in Maintenance Water and Electrolytes
Replacement Fluids
Bibliography
Chapter 70 Deficit Therapy

Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Calculation of the Fluid Deficit
Approach to Severe Dehydration
Monitoring and Adjusting Therapy
Hyponatremic Dehydration
Hypernatremic Dehydration
Bibliography
Chapter 71 Fluid and Electrolyte Treatment of Specific Disorders
Acute Diarrhea
Pyloric Stenosis
Perioperative Fluids

Part VII Pediatric Drug Therapy
Chapter 72 Pediatric Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacogenomics, and
Pharmacoproteomics
Definition of Terms
Developmental or Pediatric Pharmacogenetics and
Pharmacogenomics
Drug Biotransformation: Applications to Pediatric Therapy
Pharmacogenetics of Drug Transporters

Polymorphisms in Drug Receptors
Current and Future Applications in Pediatrics
Bibliography
Chapter 73 Principles of Drug Therapy
General Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Principles
Impact of Ontogeny on Drug Disposition
Impact of Ontogeny on Pharmacodynamics
Additional Considerations in Pediatric Therapeutics
Drug Formulation and Administration
Adherence and Compliance
Drug-Drug Interactions
Adverse Drug Reactions
Personalized Medicine
Bibliography
Chapter 74 Anesthesia and Perioperative Care
Preanesthetic Evaluation
Preoperative Preparation
General Anesthesia
Induction of General Anesthesia
Maintenance of Anesthesia

Postanesthesia Care Unit
Postoperative Pain Management
Keywords
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 75 Procedural Sedation
Bibliography
Chapter 76 Pediatric Pain Management
Definition and Categories of Pain
Assessment and Measurement of Pain in Children
Conceptual Framework for Treatment of Pediatric Pain
Unconventional Medications in Pediatric Pain
Nonpharmacologic Treatment of Pain
Invasive Interventions for Treating Pain
Intrathecal Analgesia
Nerve Ablation and Destruction
Considerations for Special Pediatric Populations
Chronic and Recurrent Pain Syndromes
Managing Complex Chronic Pain Problems
Bibliography

Chapter 77 Poisoning
Prevention
Approach to the Poisoned Patient
Principles of Management
Select Compounds in Pediatric Poisoning
Bibliography
Chapter 78 Complementary Therapies and Integrative Medicine
Dietary Supplements
Dietary Supplement Safety
Dietary Supplement Efficacy
Massage and Chiropractic
Mind-Body Therapies
Acupuncture
Cannabis
Bibliography

Part VIII Emergency Medicine and Critical Care
Chapter 79 Emergency Medical Services for Children
Primary Care Physician and Office Preparedness
Pediatric Prehospital Care

The Emergency Department
Keywords
Communications and Dispatch Center
Medical Control Physician
Transport Team
Ground vs Air Ambulance
Transport Physiology
Safety
Family-Centered Care
Referring Hospital Responsibilities
Educational Outreach
Bibliography
Keywords
Outcome Measures in Emergency Medical Services for Children
Risk Adjustment
Bibliography
Keywords
Continuum-of-Care Model
Humanitarian Disasters
Bibliography

Bibliography
Chapter 80 Triage of the Acutely Ill Child
Assessment of Vital Signs
History
Physical Examination
Management
Disposition
Bibliography
Chapter 81 Pediatric Emergencies and Resuscitation
Approach to the Emergency Evaluation of a Child
Recognition and Treatment of Respiratory Distress and Failure
Recognition and Management of Shock
Recognition of Bradyarrhythmias and Tachyarrhythmias
Recognition and Management of Cardiac Arrest
Vascular Access
Nonvascular Emergency Procedures
Postresuscitation Care
Bibliography
Chapter 82 Acute Care of Multiple Trauma

Epidemiology
Regionalization and Trauma Teams
Primary Survey
Secondary Survey
Psychological and Social Support
Bibliography
Chapter 83 Spinal Cord Injuries in Children
Clinical Manifestations
Clearing the Cervical Spine in Children
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 84 Care of Abrasions and Minor Lacerations
Lacerations and Cuts
Abrasions
Bibliography
Chapter 85 Neurologic Emergencies and Stabilization
Neurocritical Care Principles
Traumatic Brain Injury

Bibliography
Chapter 86 Brain Death
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
Observation Periods
Ancillary Studies
Documentation
Supportive Care
Objections to the Idea of Brain Death
Bibliography
Chapter 87 Syncope
Mechanisms
Evaluation
Treatment
Keywords
Clinical Presentation
Diagnosis
Management
Bibliography
Bibliography

Chapter 88 Shock
Epidemiology
Types of Shock
Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 89 Respiratory Distress and Failure
Respiratory Distress
Respiratory Failure
Monitoring a Child in Respiratory Distress and Respiratory Failure
Management
Keywords
Basic Concepts of Ventilator Management
Noninvasive Mechanical Ventilation
Invasive Mechanical Ventilation
Additional Ventilatory Modalities

Conventional Ventilator Settings
Patient-Ventilator Asynchrony
Monitoring Respiratory Mechanics
Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 90 Altitude-Associated Illness in Children (Acute Mountain Sickness)
Etiology
General Effects of Hypobaric Hypoxia
Acute Mountain Sickness
High-Altitude Cerebral Edema
High-Altitude Pulmonary Edema
Special Considerations
Bibliography
Chapter 91 Drowning and Submersion Injury
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathophysiology
Management
Prognosis

Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 92 Burn Injuries
Epidemiology
Prevention
Acute Care, Resuscitation, and Assessment
Treatment
Electrical Burns
Bibliography
Chapter 93 Cold Injuries
Pathophysiology
Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
Cold-Induced Fat Necrosis (Panniculitis)
Bibliography

Part IX Human Genetics
Chapter 94 Integration of Genetics Into Pediatric Practice
Diagnostic Testing
Predictive Testing

Predispositional Testing
Pharmacogenetic Testing
Talking to Families
Genetic Counseling
Physiologic Therapies
Replacement Therapies
Bibliography
Chapter 95 The Genetic Approach in Pediatric Medicine
The Burden of Genetic Disorders in Childhood
The Changing Paradigm of Genetics in Medicine
Ethics Issues
Bibliography
Chapter 96 The Human Genome
Fundamentals of Molecular Genetics
Genetic Variation
Genotype-Phenotype Correlations in Genetic Disease
Human Genome Project
Bibliography
Chapter 97 Patterns of Genetic Transmission

Family History and Pedigree Notation
Mendelian Inheritance
Y-Linked Inheritance
Inheritance Associated With Pseudoautosomal Regions
Digenic Inheritance
Pseudogenetic Inheritance and Familial Clustering
Nontraditional Inheritance
Multifactorial and Polygenic Inheritance
Bibliography
Chapter 98 Cytogenetics
Bibliography
Aneuploidy and Polyploidy
Down Syndrome
Bibliography
Translocations
Inversions
Deletions and Duplications
Insertions
Isochromosomes
Marker and Ring Chromosomes

Bibliography
Turner Syndrome
Klinefelter Syndrome
47,XYY
Bibliography
Bibliography
Pallister-Killian Syndrome
Hypomelanosis of Ito
Uniparental Disomy
Imprinting
Bibliography
Chapter 99 Genetics of Common Disorders
Linkage Mapping
Genetic Association
Bibliography
Chapter 100 Epigenome-Wide Association Studies and Disease
Epigenetic Mechanisms of Disease: Viable Yellow Mouse Model
Epigenetics and Regulation of Gene Expression
Pediatric Diseases Involving Epigenetic Processes
Epigenome-Wide Association Studies: DNA Methylation

Cell Fate Variability as Model for Epigenetics and Disease
Epigenetic Disease and Therapeutic Interventions
Bibliography
Chapter 101 Genetic Approaches to Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases
Scope of Genetic Disease
Clinical Evaluation
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Arrays
Exome Sequencing
Gene Function Studies
Pediatric Issues
The Diagnostic Spectrum
Bibliography

Part X Metabolic Disorders
Chapter 102 An Approach to Inborn Errors of Metabolism
Newborn Screening
Clinical Manifestations of Genetic Metabolic Diseases
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 103 Defects in Metabolism of Amino Acids

Keywords
Severe Phenylalanine Hydroxylase Deficiency (Classic
Phenylketonuria)
Hyperphenylalaninemia Caused by Deficiency of the Cofactor
Tetrahydrobiopterin
Tetrahydrobiopterin Defects Without Hyperphenylalaninemia
Bibliography
Keywords
Tyrosinemia Type I (Fumarylacetoacetate Hydrolase Deficiency,
Hepatorenal Tyrosinemia)
Tyrosinemia Type II (Tyrosine Aminotransferase Deficiency, RichnerHanhart Syndrome, Oculocutaneous Tyrosinemia)
Tyrosinemia Type III (Primary Deficiency of 4Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase)
Hawkinsinuria
Transient Tyrosinemia of the Newborn
Alkaptonuria
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency
Albinism
Bibliography
Keywords
Homocystinuria (Homocystinemia)
Hypermethioninemia

Primary Cystathioninemia (Cystathioninuria)
Bibliography
Keywords
Sulfite Oxidase Deficiency and Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency
Bibliography
Keywords
Hartnup Disorder
Bibliography
Keywords
Maple Syrup Urine Disease
Branched-Chain α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Kinase Deficiency
Branched-Chain Amino Acid Transporter Deficiency
Isovaleric Acidemia
Multiple Carboxylase Deficiencies (Defects of Biotin Cycle)
3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA Carboxylase Deficiency
3-Methylglutaconic Acidurias
β-Ketothiolase (3-Oxothiolase) Deficiency (Mitochondrial
Acetoacetyl-CoA Thiolase [T2 ] Deficiency)
Cytosolic Acetoacetyl-CoA Thiolase Deficiency
Mitochondrial 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Synthase Deficiency
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase Deficiency (3-Hydroxy-3-

Methylglutaric Aciduria)
Succinyl-CoA:3-Oxoacid-CoA Transferase Deficiency
Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency
Propionic Acidemia (Propionyl-CoA Carboxylase Deficiency)
Isolated Methylmalonic Acidemias
Combined Methylmalonic Aciduria and Homocystinuria (cbl C, cbl D,
cbl F, cbl J, and cbl X Defects)
Isolated Homocystinuria
Combined Malonic and Methylmalonic Aciduria (ACSF3 -Related
Disorder)
Bibliography
Hypoglycinemia
Hyperglycinemia
Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia (Glycine Encephalopathy)
Sarcosinemia
Primary Trimethylaminuria
Hyperoxaluria and Oxalosis
Bibliography
Keywords
3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Phosphoserine Aminotransferase Deficiency

3-Phosphoserine Phosphatase Deficiency
Bibliography
Keywords
Hyperprolinemia Type I
Hyperprolinemia Type II
Prolidase Deficiency
Disorders of De Novo Proline Synthesis
Bibliography
Keywords
Glutathione Synthetase Deficiency
γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase Deficiency (Glutathionemia)
Genetic Disorders of Metabolism of γ-Aminobutyric Acid
Bibliography
Keywords
Tyrosine Hydroxylase Deficiency (Infantile Parkinsonism, Autosomal
Recessive Dopa-Responsive Dystonia, Autosomal Recessive
Segawa Syndrome)
Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Deficiency
Tetrahydrobiopterin Deficiency
Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Deficiency
Monoamine Oxidase a Deficiency

Disorders of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism
Defects in Neurotransmitter Transporter Proteins
Histidine Decarboxylase Deficiency
Hyperprolinemia
3-Phosphoglycerate Dehydrogenase Deficiency
Phosphoserine Aminotransferase Deficiency
Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia
Bibliography
Keywords
Genetic Causes of Hyperammonemia
Clinical Manifestations of Hyperammonemia
Diagnosis
Treatment of Acute Hyperammonemia
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase 1 and N -Acetylglutamate
Synthase Deficiencies
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency
Citrullinemia
Argininosuccinate Lyase Deficiency (Argininosuccinic Aciduria)
Arginase 1 Deficiency (Hyperargininemia)
Transient Hyperammonemia of the Newborn
Disorders of Ornithine Metabolism

Congenital Glutamine Deficiency
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6 )–Dependent Epilepsy
Glutaric Aciduria Type 1 (Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency)
Lysinuric Protein Intolerance (Familial Protein Intolerance)
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology and Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Atypical Canavan Disease
Diagnosis
Treatment and Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 104 Defects in Metabolism of Lipids
Keywords
Defects in the β-Oxidation Cycle
Defects in the Carnitine Cycle

Defects in the Electron Transfer Pathway
Defects in the Ketone Synthesis Pathway
Defects in Ketone Body Utilization
Bibliography
Keywords
Peroxisomal Disorders
Adrenoleukodystrophy
Bibliography
Keywords
Epidemiology of Blood Lipids and Cardiovascular Disease
Blood Lipids and Atherogenesis
Plasma Lipoprotein Metabolism and Transport
Hyperlipoproteinemias
Bibliography
Keywords
GM1 Gangliosidosis
The GM2 Gangliosidoses
Gaucher Disease
Niemann-Pick Disease
Fabry Disease

Fucosidosis
Schindler Disease
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy
Multiple-Sulfatase Deficiency
Krabbe Disease
Farber Disease
Wolman Disease and Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease
Bibliography
Keywords
I-Cell Disease
Pseudo-Hurler Polydystrophy
Bibliography
Chapter 105 Defects in Metabolism of Carbohydrates
Keywords
Liver Glycogenoses
Muscle Glycogenoses
Bibliography
Keywords
Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyl Transferase Deficiency Galactosemia
Galactokinase Deficiency

Uridine Diphosphate Galactose-4-Epimerase Deficiency
Bibliography
Keywords
Deficiency of Fructokinase (Essential or Benign Fructosuria)
Deficiency of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphate Aldolase (Aldolase B,
Hereditary Fructose Intolerance)
Bibliography
Keywords
Disorders of Gluconeogenesis
Disorders of Pyruvate Metabolism
Bibliography
Keywords
Essential Pentosuria
Transaldolase Deficiency
Ribose-5-Phosphate Isomerase Deficiency
Bibliography
Sialidosis and Galactosialidosis
Aspartylglucosaminuria
α-Mannosidosis
Bibliography
Keywords

Congenital Disorders of Protein N -Glycosylation
Congenital Disorders of Protein O -Glycosylation
Defects in Lipid Glycosylation and in Glycosylphosphatidylinositol
Anchor Biosynthesis
Defects in Multiple Glycosylation Pathways and in Other Pathways,
Including Dolicholphosphate Biosynthesis Defects
Congenital Disorders of Deglycosylation
Therapeutic Summary
Bibliography
Chapter 106 Mitochondrial Disease Diagnosis
Overview of Mitochondrial Disease
When to Suspect Mitochondrial Disease
Mitochondrial Disease Inheritance
Diagnostic Testing for Mitochondrial Disease
Treatment Principles for Mitochondrial Disease
Bibliography
Chapter 107 Mucopolysaccharidoses
Disease Entities
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment

Bibliography
Chapter 108 Disorders of Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism
Gout
Abnormalities in Purine Salvage
Disorders Linked to Purine Nucleotide Synthesis
Disorders Resulting From Abnormalities in Purine Catabolism
Disorders of Pyrimidine Metabolism
Bibliography
Chapter 109 Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (Progeria)
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Molecular Pathogenesis
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment and Prognosis
Patient Resources
Bibliography
Chapter 110 The Porphyrias
The Heme Biosynthetic Pathway
Classification and Diagnosis of Porphyrias

δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Deficient Porphyria
Acute Intermittent Porphyria
Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
Hepatoerythropoietic Porphyria
Hereditary Coproporphyria
Variegate Porphyria
Erythropoietic Protoporphyria and X-Linked Protoporphyria
Dual Porphyria
Porphyria Resulting From Tumors
Bibliography
Chapter 111 Hypoglycemia
Definition
Significance and Sequelae
Substrate, Enzyme, and Hormonal Integration of Glucose
Homeostasis
Clinical Manifestations
Classification of Hypoglycemia in Infants and Children
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment

Prognosis
Bibliography

Part XI The Fetus and the Neonatal Infant
Chapter 112 Overview of Morbidity and Mortality
Infant Mortality
Major Causes of Infant Death
Infant Mortality Reduction
Bibliography
Chapter 113 The Newborn Infant
General Appearance
Skin
Skull
Face
Neck
Chest
Lungs
Heart
Abdomen
Genitals

Anus
Extremities
Neurologic Examination
Bibliography
Maintenance of Body Heat
Antiseptic Skin and Cord Care
Newborn Prophylaxis and Screening
Bibliography
Bibliography
Rooming-in and Breastfeeding
Bibliography
Chapter 114 High-Risk Pregnancies
Genetic Factors
Maternal Factors
Bibliography
Chapter 115 The Fetus
Bibliography
Bibliography
Infectious Diseases
Noninfectious Diseases (see Table 114.2)

Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 116 Fetal Intervention and Surgery
Fetal Therapy Ethics
Obstructive Uropathy
Nonobstructive Renal Disease
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia
Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation
Myelomeningocele
Other Indications
Fetal Centers
Bibliography
Chapter 117 The High-Risk Infant
Keywords
Monozygotic vs Dizygotic Twins
Incidence
Etiology

Atypical Twinning
Complications
Twin Syndromes (TRAP, TTTS)
Diagnosis
Prognosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Incidence
Etiology
Assessment of Gestational Age
Nursery Care
Immaturity of Drug Metabolism
Morbidity and Mortality
Bibliography
Keywords
Moderate Preterm Infant
Late Preterm Infant
Bibliography
Keywords

Small for Gestational Age and IUGR
Large-for-Gestational-Age Infants
Postterm Infants
Bibliography
Keywords
Discharge From the Hospital
Postdischarge Follow-Up
Bibliography
Chapter 118 Transport of the Critically Ill Newborn
Regionalized Care of Newborns
Levels of Neonatal Care
Transport of the Critically Ill Neonate
Bibliography
Chapter 119 Clinical Manifestations of Diseases in the Newborn Period
Abnormal Movements
Altered Mental Status
Apnea
Congenital Anomalies
Cyanosis
Gastrointestinal Disturbances

Hypotension
Jaundice
Pain
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 120 Nervous System Disorders
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Prognosis
Prevention
Treatment
Bibliography
Etiology
Pathophysiology and Pathology

Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Bibliography
Brachial Palsy
Phrenic Nerve Paralysis
Facial Nerve Palsy
Bibliography
Chapter 121 Neonatal Resuscitation and Delivery Room Emergencies
Neonatal Resuscitation
Resuscitation of the Preterm Infant
Special Circumstances in the Delivery Room
Injury During Delivery
Ongoing Care After Resuscitation
Bibliography
Chapter 122 Respiratory Tract Disorders
Keywords
The First Breath

Breathing Patterns in Newborns
Keywords
Apnea of Prematurity
Treatment
Prognosis
Apnea of Prematurity and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Bibliography
Keywords
Incidence
Etiology and Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Prevention
Treatment
Complications
Bibliography
Keywords
Incidence
Etiology and Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis
Prevention
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Keywords
Incidence and Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Prevention
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Keywords

Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Keywords
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (Bochdalek)
Bibliography
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology and Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Chapter 123 Digestive System Disorders
Keywords

Meconium Plugs
Meconium Ileus
Meconium Peritonitis
Bibliography
Keywords
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
Differential Diagnosis
Physiologic Jaundice (Icterus Neonatorum)
Pathologic Hyperbilirubinemia
Jaundice Associated With Breastfeeding
Neonatal Cholestasis

Congenital Atresia of the Bile Ducts
Bibliography
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Incidence and Prognosis
Prevention
Treatment of Hyperbilirubinemia
Bibliography
Chapter 124 Blood Disorders
Keywords
Normal Hematocrit and Hemoglobin Concentrations in Newborn
Infants
Classification of Anemia and Diagnostic Evaluation
Treatment Options for Neonatal Anemia
Bibliography
Keywords
Hemolytic Disease Caused by Rh Incompatibility
Hemolytic Disease Caused by Blood Group A and B Incompatibility
Other Forms of Hemolytic Disease
Bibliography

Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy
Neonatal Thrombocytopenia
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Chapter 125 The Umbilicus
Umbilical Cord
Hemorrhage
Granuloma
Infections
Umbilical Hernia
Congenital Omphalocele
Tumors
Bibliography
Chapter 126 Abstinence Syndromes
Keywords

Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Epidemiology
Diagnostic Criteria
Clinical Features
Interventions and Treatment
Outcomes
The Pediatrician's Role
Bibliography
Chapter 127 The Endocrine System
Keywords
Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Bibliography

Chapter 128 Dysmorphology
Classification of Birth Defects
Molecular Mechanisms of Malformations
Approach to the Dysmorphic Child
Bibliography
Chapter 129 Epidemiology of Infections
Incidence and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
General Approach to Management
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 130 Healthcare-Acquired Infections
Incidence
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Types of Infection
Prevention
Bibliography

Chapter 131 Congenital and Perinatal Infections
General Approach
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Specific Infectious Agents
General Approach
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Specific Infectious Agents
Diagnosis
Bibliography

Part XII Adolescent Medicine
Chapter 132 Adolescent Physical and Social Development
Physical Development
Neurologic, Cognitive, and Moral Development
Psychosocial Development
Implications for Providers, Parents, and Policymakers
Bibliography

Chapter 133 Gender and Sexual Identity
Terms and Definitions
Factors That Influence Sexual Identity Development
Nonconformity in Gender Expression Among Children and
Adolescents
Transgender and Gender-Nonconforming Identities Among Children
and Adolescents
Bibliography
Chapter 134 Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Adolescents
Prevalence of Homosexuality and Bisexuality in Youth
Development of Sexual Orientation in Childhood and Adolescence
Stigma, Risk, and Resilience
Health
Recommendations for Care
Bibliography
Chapter 135 Transgender Care
Cultural and Clinical Competence
Gender Literacy
Assessment
Treatment

Families
Bibliography
Chapter 136 The Epidemiology of Adolescent Health Problems
Access to Healthcare
Bibliography
Chapter 137 Delivery of Healthcare to Adolescents
Bibliography
Interviewing the Adolescent
Psychosocial Assessment
Physical Examination
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 138 Transitioning to Adult Care
Bibliography
Chapter 139 Violent Behavior
Epidemiology
Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis

Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 140 Substance Abuse
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Screening for Substance Abuse Disorders
Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Pharmacology and Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Cigarettes

Pharmacology
Clinical Manifestations
Electronic Cigarettes (E-Cigarettes)
Hookah
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Synthetic Marijuana
Bibliography
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Complications
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide
Methylenedioxymethamphetamine
Phencyclidine

Bibliography
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Clinical Manifestations
Withdrawal
Overdose Syndrome
Treatment
Bibliography
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 141 The Breast

Female Disorders
Male Disorders
Bibliography
Chapter 142 Menstrual Problems
Normal Menstruation
Menstrual Irregularities
Keywords
History and Physical Examination
Laboratory Studies
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Irregular Menstrual Bleeding
Heavy and Prolonged Menstrual Bleeding
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords

Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 143 Contraception
Contraceptive Effectiveness
Keywords
Sexual Activity
Use of Contraception Among Teens
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Intrauterine Devices
Implants
Bibliography
Keywords
Depo-Provera
Progestin-Only Pills
Bibliography
Keywords
Combined Oral Contraceptives

Transdermal Patch
Vaginal Ring
Contraindications
Bibliography
Keywords
Copper IUD
Ulipristal Acetate
Levonorgestrel
Bibliography
Keywords
Condoms
Bibliography
Keywords
Diaphragm, Cervical Cap, and Sponge
Keywords
Spermicides
Withdrawal
Fertility Awareness–Based Methods
Lactational Amenorrhea Method
Bibliography

Chapter 144 Adolescent Pregnancy
Epidemiology
Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Pregnancy Counseling and Initial Management
Adolescent Fathers
Medical Complications of Mothers and Babies
Psychosocial Outcomes/Risks for Mother and Child
Prevention of Teen Pregnancies
Bibliography
Chapter 145 Adolescent Sexual Assault
Epidemiology
Types of Rape
Clinical Manifestations
Interview and Physical Examination
Laboratory Data
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography

Chapter 146 Sexually Transmitted Infections
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Screening
Common Infections and Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 147 Chronic Overlapping Pain Conditions
Prevalence
Symptom/Disorder Overlap
Psychiatric Comorbidities
Predisposing Factors
Natural History
Proposed Pathophysiology
Treatment
Keywords
Epidemiology

Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Management
Prognosis
Bibliography
Bibliography

Part XIII Immunology
Section 1 Evaluation of the Immune System
Chapter 148 Evaluation of Suspected Immunodeficiency
Advanced Testing
Bibliography

Section 2 The T-, B-, and NK-Cell Systems
Chapter 149 Lymphocyte Development and Function
Lymphopoiesis in the Fetus
Postnatal Lymphocyte Behavior
Inheritance of Abnormalities in T-, B-, and NK-Cell Development

Bibliography
Chapter 150 Primary Defects of Antibody Production
X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia
Common Variable Immunodeficiency
Selective IgA Deficiency
IgG Subclass Deficiencies
Immunoglobulin Heavy- and Light-Chain Deletions
Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of Infancy
Class Switch Defects
X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Disease
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 151 Primary Defects of Cellular Immunity
Chromosome 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome
T-Cell Activation Defects
Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis
Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy-Candidiasis–Ectodermal Dysplasia
Bibliography
Chapter 152 Immunodeficiencies Affecting Multiple Cell Types

Keywords
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Genetics
Bibliography
Keywords
Cartilage-Hair Hypoplasia
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome
Ataxia-Telangiectasia
Autosomal Dominant Hyper-IgE Syndrome
DOCK8 Deficiency
Bibliography
Keywords
Interferon-γ Receptors 1 and 2, IL-12 Receptor β1 , and IL-12P40
Defects
IL-1R–Associated Kinase 4 Deficiency and Myeloid Differentiation
Factor 88
Natural Killer Cell Deficiency
Defects in Innate Responses to Viral Infection
Defects in Innate Responses to Fungi

Bibliography
Keywords
Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome
Immune Dysregulation, Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-Linked
Syndrome
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA4) Deficiency
Lipopolysaccharide (Lps)-Responsive Beige-Like Anchor Protein
(LRBA) Deficiency
Activated Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K) δ Syndromes
Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) Pathway
Defects
Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway Defects
Tetratricopeptide Repeat Domain 7A (TTC7A) Deficiency
Deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2 (DADA2)
Bibliography

Section 3 The Phagocytic System
Chapter 153 Neutrophils
The Phagocytic Inflammatory Response
Hematopoiesis
Neutrophil Maturation and Kinetics

Neutrophil Function
Bibliography
Chapter 154 Monocytes, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells
Development
Activation
Functional Activities
Dendritic Cells
Abnormalities of Monocyte-Macrophage or Dendritic Cell Function
Bibliography
Chapter 155 Eosinophils
Diseases Associated With Eosinophilia
Bibliography
Chapter 156 Disorders of Phagocyte Function
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency
Treatment
Prognosis
Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome
Myeloperoxidase Deficiency
Chronic Granulomatous Disease

Bibliography
Chapter 157 Leukopenia
Neutropenia
Lymphopenia
Bibliography
Chapter 158 Leukocytosis
Neutrophilia
Additional Forms of Leukocytosis
Bibliography

Section 4 The Complement System
Chapter 159 Complement Components and Pathways
Classical and Lectin Pathways
Alternative Pathway
Membrane Attack Complex
Control Mechanisms
Participation in Host Defense
Bibliography

Chapter 160 Disorders of the Complement System
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography

Section 5 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Chapter 161 Principles and Clinical Indications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell
Transplantation
HSCT From an HLA-Identical Sibling Donor
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
Juvenile Myelomonocytic Leukemia

Myelodysplastic Syndromes Other Than Juvenile Myelomonocytic
Leukemia
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Hodgkin Disease
Acquired Aplastic Anemia
Inherited Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes
Thalassemia
Sickle Cell Disease
Immunodeficiency Disorders
Inherited Metabolic Diseases
Bibliography
Chapter 162 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation From Alternative Sources
and Donors
Unrelated Donor Transplants
Umbilical Cord Blood Transplants
Haploidentical Transplants
Donor Versus Recipient NK-Cell Alloreactivity
Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Bibliography
Chapter 163 Graft-Versus-Host Disease, Rejection, and Venoocclusive Disease
Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease

Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease
Graft Failure
Venoocclusive Disease
Bibliography
Chapter 164 Infectious Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell
Transplantation
Bibliography
Chapter 165 Late Effects of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Endocrine Effects
Cardiovascular Effects
Secondary Malignancy
Graft-Versus-Host Disease
Other Effects
Special Considerations
Bibliography

Part XIV Allergic Disorders
Chapter 166 Allergy and the Immunologic Basis of Atopic Disease
Key Elements of Allergic Diseases
Mechanisms of Allergic Tissue Inflammation

Genetic Basis of Atopy
Bibliography
Chapter 167 Diagnosis of Allergic Disease
Allergy History
Physical Examination
Diagnostic Testing
Bibliography
Chapter 168 Allergic Rhinitis
Etiology and Classification
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Differential Diagnosis
Complications
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 169 Childhood Asthma
Etiology

Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 170 Atopic Dermatitis (Atopic Eczema)
Etiology
Pathology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Avoiding Triggers
Complications
Prognosis

Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 171 Insect Allergy
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 172 Ocular Allergies
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 173 Urticaria (Hives) and Angioedema
Etiology and Pathogenesis
Physical Urticaria
Chronic Idiopathic Urticaria and Angioedema

Treatment
Hereditary Angioedema
Bibliography
Chapter 174 Anaphylaxis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 175 Serum Sickness
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Differential Diagnosis
Diagnosis
Treatment

Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 176 Food Allergy and Adverse Reactions to Foods
Genetics
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 177 Adverse Reactions to Drugs
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis and Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography

Part XV Rheumatic Diseases of Childhood
(Connective Tissue Disease, Collagen Vascular
Diseases)

Chapter 178 Evaluation of Suspected Rheumatic Disease
Symptoms Suggestive of Rheumatic Disease
Signs Suggestive of Rheumatic Disease
Laboratory Testing
Imaging Studies
Bibliography
Chapter 179 Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases
Pediatric Rheumatology Teams and Primary Care Physicians
Therapeutics
Bibliography
Chapter 180 Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
Epidemiology
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Prognosis

Bibliography
Chapter 181 Ankylosing Spondylitis and Other Spondyloarthritides
Epidemiology
Etiology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 182 Reactive and Postinfectious Arthritis
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations and Differential Diagnosis
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications and Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 183 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Etiology

Epidemiology
Pathology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Keywords
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 184 Juvenile Dermatomyositis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis

Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 185 Scleroderma and Raynaud Phenomenon
Etiology and Pathogenesis
Classification
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 186 Behçet Disease
Epidemiology
Etiology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis

Treatment and Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 187 Sjögren Syndrome
Epidemiology
Etiology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications and Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 188 Hereditary Periodic Fever Syndromes and Other Systemic
Autoinflammatory Diseases
Classification of Autoinflammatory Disorders
Autoinflammatory Diseases With Periodic or Prominent Fevers
Other Mendelian Autoinflammatory Diseases
Genetically Complex Autoinflammatory Diseases
Bibliography
Chapter 189 Amyloidosis
Etiology

Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 190 Sarcoidosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography

Chapter 191 Kawasaki Disease
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory and Radiology Findings
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 192 Vasculitis Syndromes
Epidemiology
Pathology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment

Complications
Prognosis
Bibliography
Epidemiology
Pathology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Bibliography
Epidemiology
Pathology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis

Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Bibliography
Epidemiology
Pathology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 193 Musculoskeletal Pain Syndromes
Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications and Prognosis
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 194 Miscellaneous Conditions Associated With Arthritis
Relapsing Polychondritis
Mucha-Habermann Disease/Pityriasis Lichenoides Et Varioliformis
Acuta
Sweet Syndrome
Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy
Plant Thorn Synovitis
Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis
Bibliography

Part XVI Infectious Diseases

Section 1 General Considerations
Chapter 195 Diagnostic Microbiology
Specimen Collection
Laboratory Diagnosis of Bacterial and Fungal Infections
Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing
Point-of-Care Diagnostics
Laboratory Detection of Parasitic Infections
Serologic Diagnosis
Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections
Bibliography
Chapter 196 The Microbiome and Pediatric Health
Measuring the Microbiome
Early Childhood Development of the Microbiome
The Microbiome and Physiologic Development
Contributions of Microbiome to Disease
Therapeutic Manipulation of the Microbiome
Bibliography

Section 2 Preventive Measures

Chapter 197 Immunization Practices
Passive Immunity
Active Immunization
Vaccination System in the United States
Recommended Immunization Schedule
Vaccines Recommended in Special Situations
Precautions and Contraindications
Medical Exemptions
Improving Immunization Coverage
Vaccine Hesitancy
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 198 Infection Prevention and Control
Hand Hygiene
Standard Precautions
Isolation
Additional Measures
Surgical Prophylaxis
Employee Health

Bibliography
Chapter 199 Childcare and Communicable Diseases
Epidemiology
Respiratory Tract Infections
Gastrointestinal Tract Infections
Skin Diseases
Invasive Organisms
Herpesviruses
Bloodborne Pathogens
Antibiotic Use and Bacterial Resistance
Prevention
Standards
Bibliography
Chapter 200 Health Advice for Children Traveling Internationally
The Pediatric Travel Medicine Consultation
Safety and Preventive Counseling Topics
Routine Childhood Vaccinations Required for Pediatric Travel
Specialized Pediatric Travel Vaccinations
Traveler's Diarrhea
Insect-Borne Infections

Malaria Chemoprophylaxis
The Returning Traveler
The Adolescent Traveler
Bibliography
Chapter 201 Fever
Pathogenesis
Etiology
Clinical Features
Evaluation
Management
Bibliography
Chapter 202 Fever Without a Focus in the Neonate and Young Infant
Etiology and Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Laboratory Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography

Chapter 203 Fever in the Older Child
Diagnosis
General Approach
Evaluation
Management
Bibliography
Chapter 204 Fever of Unknown Origin
Etiology
Diagnosis
Management
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 205 Infections in Immunocompromised Persons
Abnormalities of the Phagocytic System
Defective Splenic Function, Opsonization, or Complement Activity
B Cell Defects (Humoral Immunodeficiencies)
T Cell Defects (Cell-Mediated Immunodeficiencies)
Combined B Cell and T Cell Defects
Bibliography
Acquired Immunodeficiency From Infectious Agents

Malignancies
Fever and Neutropenia
Fever Without Neutropenia
Transplantation
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 206 Infection Associated With Medical Devices
Intravascular Access Devices
Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts
Urinary Catheters
Peritoneal Dialysis Catheters
Orthopedic Prostheses
Bibliography

Section 3 Antibiotic Therapy
Chapter 207 Principles of Antibacterial Therapy
Age- and Risk-Specific Use of Antibiotics in Children
Antibiotics Commonly Used in Pediatric Practice
Bibliography

Section 4 Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Chapter 208 Staphylococcus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Epidemiology

Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 209 Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pneumococcus)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 210 Group A Streptococcus
Etiology
Epidemiology

Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Prevention
Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 211 Group B Streptococcus
Etiology

Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 212 Non–Group A or B Streptococci
Bibliography
Chapter 213 Enterococcus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography

Chapter 214 Diphtheria (Corynebacterium diphtheriae )
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Supportive Care
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 215 Listeria monocytogenes
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment

Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 216 Actinomyces
Etiology and Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Diagnosis
Clinical Manifestations
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 217 Nocardia
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical and Radiographic Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis

Bibliography

Section 5 Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections
Chapter 218 Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcus)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 219 Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gonococcus)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis and Pathology
Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 220 Kingella kingae
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Disease
Spondylodiscitis
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 221 Haemophilus influenzae
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Diagnosis

Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 222 Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
Etiology and Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Bibliography
Chapter 223 Moraxella catarrhalis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis of Infection
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography

Chapter 224 Pertussis (Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis )
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 225 Salmonella
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Complications
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention

Bibliography
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Complications
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 226 Shigella
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Immunity
Clinical Manifestations and Complications
Differential Diagnosis
Diagnosis

Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 227 Escherichia coli
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli
Diffusely Adherent Escherichia coli
Enteroaggregative Hemorrhagic Escherichia coli
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention of Illness
Bibliography
Chapter 228 Cholera
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations

Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 229 Campylobacter
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Complications
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 230 Yersinia
Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology

Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology

Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 231 Aeromonas and Plesiomonas
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis

Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 232 Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas
Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Supportive Care
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Keywords
Burkholderia mallei (Glanders)
Burkholderia pseudomallei (Melioidosis)
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography

Chapter 233 Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 234 Brucella
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography

Chapter 235 Legionella
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 236 Bartonella
Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis

Prevention
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Bacillary Angiomatosis

Bacillary Peliosis
Bacteremia and Endocarditis
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Bibliography

Section 6 Anaerobic Bacterial Infections
Chapter 237 Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Supportive Care
Complications
Prognosis
Prevention

Bibliography
Chapter 238 Tetanus (Clostridium tetani)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Supportive Care
Complications
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 239 Clostridium difficile Infection
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment

Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 240 Other Anaerobic Infections
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Common Anaerobic Pathogens
Bibliography

Section 7 Mycobacterial Infections
Chapter 241 Principles of Antimycobacterial Therapy
Agents Used Against Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Agents Used Against Mycobacterium Leprae
Agents Used Against Nontuberculous Mycobacteria
Bibliography
Chapter 242 Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
Etiology
Epidemiology

Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnostic Tools
Mycobacterial Sampling, Susceptibility and Culture
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 243 Hansen Disease (Mycobacterium leprae)
Microbiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Disease Classification
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Long-Term Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 244 Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography

Section 8 Spirochetal Infections
Chapter 245 Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 246 Nonvenereal Treponemal Infections
Bibliography

Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 247 Leptospira
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 248 Relapsing Fever (Borrelia)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention

Bibliography
Chapter 249 Lyme Disease (Borrelia burgdorferi)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography

Section 9 Mycoplasmal Infections
Chapter 250 Mycoplasma pneumoniae
The Organism
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis

Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 251 Genital Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma
genitalium , and Ureaplasma urealyticum )
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography

Section 10 Chlamydial Infections
Chapter 252 Chlamydia pneumoniae
Etiology
Epidemiology

Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 253 Chlamydia trachomatis
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Keywords
Epidemiology
Diagnosis

Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 254 Psittacosis (Chlamydia psittaci)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography

Section 11 Rickettsial Infections

Chapter 255 Spotted Fever Group Rickettsioses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Supportive Care
Complications
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings

Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment and Supportive Care
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 256 Scrub Typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations and Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment and Supportive Care
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 257 Typhus Group Rickettsioses

Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Supportive Care
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Prevention

Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 258 Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications and Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 259 Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Pathology and Pathogenesis

Clinical Manifestations and Complications
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography

Section 12 Fungal Infections
Chapter 260 Principles of Antifungal Therapy
Polyenes
Pyrimidine Analogs
Azoles
Echinocandins
Bibliography
Chapter 261 Candida
Keywords
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis
Prophylaxis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Keywords
Oral Candidiasis
Diaper Dermatitis
Ungual and Periungual Infections
Vulvovaginitis
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Primary Immune Defects
Bibliography
Chapter 262 Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii
Etiology

Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 263 Malassezia
Bibliography
Chapter 264 Aspergillus
Asthma
Extrinsic Alveolar Alveolitis
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
Allergic Aspergillus Sinusitis
Bibliography
Keywords
Pulmonary Aspergilloma
Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis
Sinusitis
Otomycosis

Bibliography
Keywords
Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis
Cutaneous Aspergillosis
Invasive Sinonasal Disease
Central Nervous System
Eye
Bone
Heart
Empirical Antifungal Therapy
Bibliography
Chapter 265 Histoplasmosis (Histoplasma capsulatum)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 266 Blastomycosis (Blastomyces dermatitidis and Blastomyces

gilchristii )
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 267 Coccidioidomycosis (Coccidioides Species)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 268 Paracoccidioides brasiliensis
Etiology
Epidemiology

Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 269 Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 270 Mucormycosis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment

Bibliography
Chapter 271 Pneumocystis jirovecii
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Supportive Care
Complications
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography

Section 13 Viral Infections
Chapter 272 Principles of Antiviral Therapy
Antivirals Used for Herpesviruses

Antivirals Used for Respiratory Viral Infections
Antivirals Used for Hepatitis
Antiviral Immune Globulins
Bibliography
Chapter 273 Measles
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Pathology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Modified Measles Infection
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography

Chapter 274 Rubella
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnoses
Differential Diagnoses
Complications
Treatment
Supportive Care
Prognosis
Prevention
Vaccination
Bibliography
Chapter 275 Mumps
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathology and Pathogenesis

Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 276 Polioviruses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Transmission
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Prevention

Bibliography
Chapter 277 Nonpolio Enteroviruses
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications and Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 278 Parvoviruses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prevention

Bibliography
Chapter 279 Herpes Simplex Virus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 280 Varicella-Zoster Virus*
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Complications
Diagnosis
Treatment

Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 281 Epstein-Barr Virus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Complications
Oncogenesis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 282 Cytomegalovirus
The Virus and Its Interaction With the Host
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis

Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 283 Roseola (Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathology/Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 284 Human Herpesvirus 8
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 285 Influenza Viruses*
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Complications
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Supportive Care
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 286 Parainfluenza Viruses*
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis

Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 287 Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 288 Human Metapneumovirus
Etiology
Etiology

Epidemiology
Pathology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 289 Adenoviruses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Prevention

Bibliography
Chapter 290 Rhinoviruses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 291 Coronaviruses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis of SARS and MERS
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment and Prevention
Bibliography

Chapter 292 Rotaviruses, Caliciviruses, and Astroviruses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 293 Human Papillomaviruses
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment

Complications
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 294 Arboviral Infections
Etiology
Diagnosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Epidemiology
Clinical Features
Management
Laboratory Diagnosis
Prognosis
Differential Diagnosis
Prevention

Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 295 Dengue Fever, Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, and Severe Dengue
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 296 Yellow Fever
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 297 Ebola and Other Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 298 Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis

Complications
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 299 Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 300 Rabies
Epidemiology
Transmission
Pathogenesis

Clinical Manifestations
Differential Diagnosis
Diagnosis
Treatment and Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 301 Polyomaviruses
Bibliography
Chapter 302 Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency
Syndrome
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 303 Human T-Lymphotropic Viruses (1 and 2)

Etiology
Epidemiology and Modes of Transmission
Diagnosis
Clinical Manifestations
Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma
Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus-1–Associated Myelopathy
Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus-2
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 304 Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis and Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Genetic Counseling
Prognosis
Family Support

Prevention
Bibliography

Section 14 Antiparasitic Therapy
Chapter 305 Principles of Antiparasitic Therapy
Selected Antiparasitic Drugs for Protozoans
Selected Antiparasitic Drugs for Helminths and Ectoparasites

Section 15 Protozoan Diseases
Chapter 306 Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 307 Amebiasis
Etiology

Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 308 Giardiasis and Balantidiasis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Bibliography

Chapter 309 Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, and Microsporidia
Cryptosporidium
Diagnosis
Cystoisospora
Cyclospora
Microsporidia
Bibliography
Chapter 310 Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 311 Leishmaniasis (Leishmania)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathology

Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Differential Diagnosis
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 312 African Trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness; Trypanosoma brucei
Complex)
Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 313 American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi )

Etiology
Life Cycle
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 314 Malaria (Plasmodium)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications of Plasmodium Falciparum MALARIA
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 315 Babesiosis (Babesia)

Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 316 Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Systemic Signs
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Acknowledgment

Bibliography

Section 16 Helminthic Diseases
Chapter 317 Ascariasis (Ascaris lumbricoides)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 318 Hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment

Prevention
Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 319 Trichuriasis (Trichuris trichiura)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 320 Enterobiasis (Enterobius vermicularis)
Etiology
Epidemiology

Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 321 Strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides stercoralis)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 322 Lymphatic Filariasis (Brugia malayi, Brugia timori, and Wuchereria
bancrofti )
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 323 Other Tissue Nematodes
Onchocerciasis (Onchocerca Volvulus)
Loiasis (Loa Loa)
Infection With Animal Filariae
Angiostrongylus Cantonensis
Angiostrongylus Costaricensis
Dracunculiasis (Dracunculus Medinensis)
Gnathostoma Spinigerum
Bibliography
Chapter 324 Toxocariasis (Visceral and Ocular Larva Migrans)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention

Bibliography
Chapter 325 Trichinellosis (Trichinella spiralis)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 326 Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma)
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography

Chapter 327 Flukes (Liver, Lung, and Intestinal)
Liver Flukes
Lung Flukes
Intestinal Flukes
Bibliography
Chapter 328 Adult Tapeworm Infections
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Diphyllobothriasis (Diphyllobothrium Spp.)
Hymenolepiasis (Hymenolepis)
Dipylidiasis (Dipylidium Caninum)
Bibliography
Chapter 329 Cysticercosis
Etiology
Epidemiology

Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 330 Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus
multilocularis )
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography

Volume 2
Part XVII The Digestive System

Section 1 Clinical Manifestations of Gastrointestinal
Disease
Chapter 331 Normal Digestive Tract Phenomena
Bibliography
Chapter 332 Major Symptoms and Signs of Digestive Tract Disorders
Dysphagia
Regurgitation
Anorexia
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Constipation
Abdominal Pain
Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
Abdominal Distention and Abdominal Masses
Bibliography

Section 2 The Oral Cavity
Chapter 333 Development and Developmental Anomalies of the Teeth

Development of Teeth
Bibliography
Chapter 334 Disorders of the Oral Cavity Associated With Other Conditions
Chapter 335 Malocclusion
Variations in Growth Patterns
Crossbite
Open and Closed Bites
Dental Crowding
Digit Sucking
Chapter 336 Cleft Lip and Palate
Incidence and Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Postoperative Management
Sequelae
Velopharyngeal Dysfunction
Bibliography
Chapter 337 Syndromes With Oral Manifestations
Bibliography

Chapter 338 Dental Caries
Etiology
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Complications
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 339 Periodontal Diseases
Gingivitis
Aggressive Periodontitis in Children (Prepubertal Periodontitis)
Aggressive Periodontitis in Adolescents
Cyclosporine- or Phenytoin-Induced Gingival Overgrowth
Acute Pericoronitis
Necrotizing Periodontal Disease (Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative
Gingivitis)
Bibliography
Chapter 340 Dental Trauma
Injuries to Teeth
Injuries to Periodontal Structures

Prevention
Additional Considerations
Bibliography
Chapter 341 Common Lesions of the Oral Soft Tissues
Oropharyngeal Candidiasis
Aphthous Ulcers
Herpetic Gingivostomatitis
Recurrent Herpes Labialis
Parulis
Cheilitis
Ankyloglossia
Geographic Tongue
Fissured Tongue
Developmental (Normal) Variations
Bibliography
Chapter 342 Diseases of the Salivary Glands and Jaws
Parotitis
Ranula
Mucocele
Congenital Lip Pits

Eruption Cyst
Xerostomia
Salivary Gland Tumors
Histiocytic Disorders
Tumors of the Jaw
Bibliography
Chapter 343 Diagnostic Radiology in Dental Assessment
Bibliography

Section 3 The Esophagus
Chapter 344 Embryology, Anatomy, and Function of the Esophagus
Embryology
Anatomy
Function
Keywords
Diagnostic Aids
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 345 Congenital Anomalies

Keywords
Presentation
Diagnosis
Management
Outcome
Bibliography
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Chapter 346 Obstructing and Motility Disorders of the Esophagus
Extrinsic
Intrinsic
Bibliography
Chapter 347 Dysmotility
Upper Esophageal and Upper Esophageal Sphincter Dysmotility
(Striated Muscle)
Lower Esophageal and Lower Esophageal Sphincter Dysfunction
(Smooth Muscle)
Bibliography
Chapter 348 Hiatal Hernia

Chapter 349 Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Pathophysiology
Epidemiology and Natural History
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Management
Keywords
Esophageal: Esophagitis and Sequelae—Stricture, Barrett
Esophagus, Adenocarcinoma
Nutritional
Extraesophageal: Respiratory (“Atypical”) Presentations
Apnea and Stridor
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 350 Eosinophilic Esophagitis, Pill Esophagitis, and Infective
Esophagitis
Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Infective Esophagitis
Pill Esophagitis
Bibliography

Chapter 351 Esophageal Perforation
Bibliography
Chapter 352 Esophageal Varices
Bibliography
Chapter 353 Ingestions
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography

Section 4 Stomach and Intestines
Chapter 354 Normal Development, Structure, and Function of the Stomach and
Intestines
Development
Digestion and Absorption
Chapter 355 Pyloric Stenosis and Other Congenital Anomalies of the Stomach
Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment

Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Chapter 356 Intestinal Atresia, Stenosis, and Malrotation
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Clinical Manifestation and Diagnosis

Treatment
Bibliography
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Chapter 357 Intestinal Duplications, Meckel Diverticulum, and Other Remnants
of the Omphalomesenteric Duct
Clinical Manifestations
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Bibliography
Chapter 358 Motility Disorders and Hirschsprung Disease
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Bibliography
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis

Treatment
Bibliography
Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Bibliography
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Chapter 359 Ileus, Adhesions, Intussusception, and Closed-Loop Obstructions
Bibliography
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Etiology and Epidemiology
Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment

Prognosis
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 360 Foreign Bodies and Bezoars
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 361 Peptic Ulcer Disease in Children
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Primary Ulcers
Secondary Ulcers
“Stress” Ulceration
Treatment
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 362 Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations

Differential Diagnosis
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Differential Diagnosis
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Chapter 363 Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis
Bibliography
Chapter 364 Disorders of Malabsorption
Clinical Approach
Keywords
Investigations for Carbohydrate Malabsorption

Investigations for Fat Malabsorption
Investigations for Protein-Losing Enteropathy
Investigations for Exocrine Pancreatic Function
Investigations for Intestinal Mucosal Disorders
Imaging Procedures
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology and Epidemiology
Genetics and Pathogenesis
Clinical Presentation and Associated Disorders
Diagnosis
Treatment
The Spectrum of Gluten-Related Disorders
Bibliography
Keywords
Defects of Enterocyte Differentiation and Polarization
Microvillus Inclusion Disease (Congenital Microvillus Atrophy)
Tufting Enteropathy (Congenital Tufting Enteropathy)
Tricho-Hepato-Enteric Syndrome (Syndromic Diarrhea)
Defects in Enteroendocrine Cells Differentiation

Enteric Anendocrinosis
Proprotein Convertase 1/3 Deficiency
Mitchell-Riley Syndrome
Aristaless-Related Homeobox Gene Mutations
Autoimmune Enteropathy
Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1
Abetalipoproteinemia
Homozygous Hypobetalipoproteinemia
Chylomicron Retention Disease (Anderson Disease)
DGAT1 Mutation
Wolman Disease
Tangier Disease
Sitosterolemia
Bile Acid Malabsorption
Protein-Losing Enteropathy
Bibliography
Keywords
Postinfectious Diarrhea
Proximal Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth
Environmental Enteropathy (Tropical Sprue)

Whipple Disease
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Treatment
Complications
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Carbohydrate Malabsorption
Lactase Deficiency
Fructose Malabsorption
Sucrase-Isomaltase Deficiency
Glucose-Galactose Malabsorption
Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency
Enterokinase (Enteropeptidase) Deficiency

Trehalase Deficiency
Trypsinogen Deficiency
Bibliography
Keywords
Keywords
Disorders of Carbohydrate Absorption
Disorders of Amino Acid and Peptide Absorption
Disorders of Fat Transport
Disorders of Vitamin Absorption
Disorders of Electrolyte and Mineral Absorption
Bibliography
Chapter 365 Intestinal Transplantation in Children With Intestinal Failure
Indications for Intestinal Transplant
Transplantation Operation
Postoperative Management
Bibliography
Chapter 366 Acute Gastroenteritis in Children
Burden of Childhood Diarrhea
Pathogens
Epidemiology in the United States and Other Middle- and High-

Income Countries
Epidemiology in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Pathogenesis of Infectious Diarrhea
Clinical Manifestation of Diarrhea
Intestinal and Extraintestinal Complications
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Prevention
Keywords
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 367 Chronic Diarrhea
Definition of Epidemiology
Pathophysiology
Etiology
Evaluation of Patients
Investigations
Treatment

KeyWords
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 368 Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Children and Adolescents
Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders
Functional Defecation Disorders
Bibliography
Chapter 369 Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome
Bibliography
Chapter 370 Acute Appendicitis
Epidemiology
Pathophysiology
Appendicitis Risk Scoring Systems
Laboratory Findings
Imaging Studies
Diagnosis and Treatment
Differential Diagnosis
Antibiotics

Surgical Intervention
Perforated Appendicitis
Nonoperative Management of Uncomplicated Appendicitis
Recurrent Appendicitis
Interval Appendectomy
Incidental Appendicoliths
Bibliography
Chapter 371 Surgical Conditions of the Anus and Rectum
Keywords
Embryology
Associated Anomalies
Manifestations and Diagnosis
Approach to the Patient
Operative Repair
Outcome
Bibliography
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography

Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Chapter 372 Tumors of the Digestive Tract
Hamartomatous Tumors
Adenomatous Tumors
Other Gastrointestinal Tumors
Bibliography
Chapter 373 Inguinal Hernias

Embryology and Pathogenesis
Evaluation of Acute Inguinal–Scrotal Swelling
Direct Inguinal Hernia
Femoral Hernia
Complications
Bibliography

Section 5 Exocrine Pancreas
Chapter 374 Embryology, Anatomy, and Physiology of the Pancreas
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 375 Pancreatic Function Tests
Direct Test
Bibliography
Chapter 376 Disorders of the Exocrine Pancreas
Disorders Associated With Pancreatic Insufficiency
Cystic Fibrosis (see Chapter 432)
Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome (see Chapter 157)

Pearson Syndrome
Johanson-Blizzard Syndrome
Isolated Enzyme Deficiencies
Other Syndromes Associated With Pancreatic Insufficiency
Bibliography
Chapter 377 Treatment of Pancreatic Insufficiency
Bibliography
Chapter 378 Pancreatitis
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Chapter 379 Pancreatic Fluid Collections
Treatment of Fluid Collections and Necrosis
Bibliography

Chapter 380 Pancreatic Tumors
Bibliography

Section 6 The Liver and Biliary System
Chapter 381 Morphogenesis of the Liver and Biliary System
Hepatic Ultrastructure
Metabolic Functions of the Liver
Bibliography
Chapter 382 Manifestations of Liver Disease
Pathologic Manifestations
Clinical Manifestations
Keywords
Biochemical Tests
Liver Biopsy
Hepatic Imaging Procedures
Diagnostic Approach to Infants With Jaundice
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 383 Cholestasis

Mechanisms
Evaluation
Intrahepatic Cholestasis
Bile Acid-Coenzyme a Ligase Deficiency
Disorders of Embryogenesis
Biliary Atresia
Management of Chronic Cholestasis
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 384 Metabolic Diseases of the Liver
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Type I (Glucuronyl Transferase Deficiency)
Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Type II (Partial Glucuronyl Transferase
Deficiency)
Inherited Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome
Bibliography
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Pathology
Diagnosis

Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
α1 -Antitrypsin Deficiency
Citrin Deficiency
Bibliography
Chapter 385 Viral Hepatitis
Issues Common to All Forms of Viral Hepatitis
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis C
Hepatitis D
Hepatitis E
Approach to Acute or Chronic Hepatitis
Bibliography
Chapter 386 Liver Abscess
Bibliography

Chapter 387 Liver Disease Associated With Systemic Disorders
Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Bacterial Sepsis
Celiac Disease
Cardiac Disease
Cholestasis Associated With Chronic Total Parenteral Nutrition
Cystic Fibrosis
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Hemoglobinopathies
Histiocytic Disorders
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 388 Mitochondrial Hepatopathies
Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Primary Mitochondrial Hepatopathies
Diagnostic Evaluation
Treatment of Mitochondrial Hepatopathies
Bibliography
Chapter 389 Autoimmune Hepatitis

Autoimmune Hepatitis
Etiology
Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 390 Drug- and Toxin-Induced Liver Injury
Treatment
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 391 Acute Hepatic Failure
Etiology
Pathology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings

Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 392 Cystic Diseases of the Biliary Tract and Liver
Choledochal Cysts
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Liver Disease
Bibliography
Chapter 393 Diseases of the Gallbladder
Anomalies
Acute Hydrops
Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis
Biliary Dyskinesia
Bibliography
Chapter 394 Portal Hypertension and Varices
Etiology
Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis

Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 395 Liver Transplantation
Indications
Technical Innovations
Immunosuppression
Complications
Outcomes
Bibliography

Section 7 Peritoneum
Chapter 396 Peritoneal Malformations
Acknowledgment
Bibliography
Chapter 397 Ascites
Bibliography
Chapter 398 Peritonitis

Etiology and Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis and Treatment
Bibliography
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 399 Epigastric Hernia
Clinical Presentation
Bibliography

Part XVIII The Respiratory System
Section 1 Development and Function
Chapter 400 Diagnostic Approach to Respiratory Disease

History
Physical Examination
Blood Gas Analysis
Transillumination of the Chest
Radiographic Techniques
Pulmonary Function Testing
Microbiology: Examination of Lung Secretions
The Microbiome (see Chapter 196)
Airway Visualization and Lung Specimen–Based Diagnostic Tests
Bibliography
Chapter 401 Chronic or Recurrent Respiratory Symptoms
Judging the Seriousness of Chronic Respiratory Complaints
Recurrent or Persistent Cough
Frequently Recurring or Persistent Stridor
Recurrent or Persistent Wheeze
Recurrent and Persistent Lung Infiltrates
Evaluation
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 402 Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

Epidemiology
Pathology
Environmental Risk Factors
Genetic Risk Factors
Gene-Environment Interactions
Infant Groups at Increased Risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
Clinical Strategies
Keywords
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Risk Factors
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Outcome
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 403 Brief Resolved Unexplained Events and Other Acute Events in
Infants
Background

Definition
Epidemiology
Initial History
Bibliography

Section 2 Disorders of the Respiratory Tract
Chapter 404 Congenital Disorders of the Nose
Normal Newborn Nose
Physiology
Congenital Disorders
Choanal Atresia
Congenital Defects of the Nasal Septum
Pyriform Aperture Stenosis
Congenital Midline Nasal Masses
Diagnosis and Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 405 Acquired Disorders of the Nose
Keywords
Etiology

Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Keywords
Anatomy
Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 406 Nasal Polyps
Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 407 The Common Cold
Etiology

Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 408 Sinusitis
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 409 Acute Pharyngitis

Infectious Etiologies
Diagnosis
Treatment
Chronic Group a Streptococcus Carriers
Recurrent Pharyngitis
Complications and Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Chapter 410 Retropharyngeal Abscess, Lateral Pharyngeal (Parapharyngeal)
Abscess, and Peritonsillar Cellulitis/Abscess
Retropharyngeal and Lateral Pharyngeal Abscess
Peritonsillar Cellulitis and/or Abscess
Bibliography
Chapter 411 Tonsils and Adenoids
Anatomy
Normal Function
Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Complications

Chronic Airway Obstruction
Bibliography
Chapter 412 Acute Inflammatory Upper Airway Obstruction (Croup,
Epiglottitis, Laryngitis, and Bacterial Tracheitis)
Etiology and Epidemiology
Clinical Manifestations
Differential Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 413 Congenital Anomalies of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations

Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Bibliography
Keywords
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography

Bibliography
Bibliography
Bibliography
Chapter 414 Foreign Bodies in the Airway
Epidemiology and Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 415 Laryngotracheal Stenosis and Subglottic Stenosis
Keywords
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 416 Bronchomalacia and Tracheomalacia
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis

Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 417 Neoplasms of the Larynx, Trachea, and Bronchi
Keywords
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Keywords
Bibliography
Keywords
Bibliography

Chapter 418 Wheezing, Bronchiolitis, and Bronchitis
Keywords
General Pathophysiology of Wheezing in Infants
Clinical Manifestations
Prognosis
Prevention
Bibliography
Keywords
Acute Bronchitis
Chronic Bronchitis
Cigarette Smoking and Air Pollution
Bibliography
Chapter 419 Plastic Bronchitis
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Complications and Prognosis
Bibliography

Chapter 420 Emphysema and Overinflation
Localized Obstructive Overinflation
Generalized Obstructive Overinflation
Bibliography
Chapter 421 α1 -Antitrypsin Deficiency and Emphysema
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Treatment
Supportive Therapy
Bibliography
Chapter 422 Other Distal Airway Diseases
Keywords
Epidemiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography

Keywords
Bibliography
Keyword
Epidemiology and Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 423 Congenital Disorders of the Lung
Etiology and Pathology
Clinical Manifestations and Prognosis
Diagnosis and Treatment
Bibliography
Etiology and Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis and Treatment
Bibliography
Pathology
Etiology

Diagnosis
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Etiology and Pathology
Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
Bibliography
Etiology and Pathology
Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
Bibliography
Etiology and Pathology
Clinical Manifestations and Treatment
Bibliography
Congenital Lobar Emphysema and Pulmonary Cysts
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation
Bronchobiliary Fistula

Bibliography
Chapter 424 Pulmonary Edema
Pathophysiology
Etiology
Clinical Manifestations
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 425 Aspiration Syndromes
Aspiration Syndromes
Gastric Contents
Hydrocarbon Aspiration
Bibliography
Chapter 426 Chronic Recurrent Aspiration
Etiology
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 427 Immune and Inflammatory Lung Disease
Keywords

Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations and Classification
Laboratory
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Classification and Pathogenesis
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis
Sarcoidosis
Berylliosis
Granulomatous Lung Disease in Primary Immune Deficiency
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations

Löffler Syndrome
Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia
Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia
Eosinophilic Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis (the Churg-Strauss
Syndrome)
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
Hypereosinophilic Syndrome
Bibliography
Keywords
Classification and Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane Disease (Anti-GBM Disease)
Bibliography
Keywords
Background/Summary
Epidemiology
Pathophysiology
Clinical Presentation

Diagnosis
Natural Course and Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Clinical Presentation
Evaluation
Treatment
Outcomes
Bibliography
Chapter 428 Community-Acquired Pneumonia
Epidemiology
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Complications
Prevention
Bibliography

Chapter 429 Pleurisy, Pleural Effusions, and Empyema
Etiology
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Differential Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology
Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis
Complications
Treatment
Bibliography
Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology

Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings
Complications
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 430 Bronchiectasis
Pathophysiology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 431 Pulmonary Abscess
Pathology and Pathogenesis
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography

Chapter 432 Cystic Fibrosis
Genetics
Pathogenesis
Pathology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis and Assessment
Treatment
Treatment of Pulmonary Complications
Treatment of Intestinal Complications
Other Complications
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 433 Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (Immotile Cilia Syndrome, Kartagener
Syndrome)
Normal Ciliary Ultrastructure and Function
Genetics of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
Clinical Manifestations of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
Diagnosis of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia
Treatment
Prognosis

Bibliography
Chapter 434 Diffuse Lung Diseases in Childhood
Pathology
Deficiency of Surfactant Protein B (Surfactant Metabolism
Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 1; Smdp1; Omim #265120)
Surfactant Protein C Gene Abnormalities (Surfactant Metabolism
Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 2; Smdp2; Omim #610913)
Disease Caused by Mutations in ABCA3 (Surfactant Metabolism
Dysfunction, Pulmonary, 3; Smdp3; Omim #610921)
Disease Caused by Mutations in NKX2-1 (Thyroid Transcription
Factor 1, Choreoathetosis, Hypothyroidism, and Neonatal
Respiratory Distress, Omim #600635)
Treatment of Surfactant Dysfunction Disorders
Bibliography
Etiology and Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations
Diagnosis
Treatment
Bibliography
Chapter 435 Pulmonary Hemosiderosis
Etiology
Epidemiology

Pathology
Pathophysiology
Clinical Manifestations
Laboratory Findings and Diagnosis
Treatment
Prognosis
Bibliography
Chapter 436 Pulmonary Embolism, Infarction, and Hemorrhage
Keywords
Etiology
Epidemiology
Pathophysiology
Clinical M